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NAME

perlmodinstall - Installing CPAN Modules

DESCRIPTION

You can think of a module as the fundamental unit of reusable Perl code; see perlmod for details. Whenever anyone creates a chunk of Perl code that they think will be useful to the world, they register as a Perl developer at http://www.cpan.org/modules/04pause.html so that they can then upload their code to the CPAN. The CPAN is the Comprehensive Perl Archive Network and can be accessed at http://www.cpan.org/ , and searched at http://search.cpan.org/ .

This documentation is for people who want to download CPAN modules and install them on their own computer.

PREAMBLE

First, are you sure that the module isn't already on your system? Try perl -MFoo -e 1 . (Replace "Foo" with the name of the module; for instance, perl -MCGI::Carp -e 1 .

If you don't see an error message, you have the module. (If you do see an error message, it's still possible you have the module, but that it's not in your path, which you can display with perl -e "print qq(@INC)" .) For the remainder of this document, we'll assume that you really honestly truly lack an installed module, but have found it on the CPAN.

So now you have a file ending in .tar.gz (or, less often, .zip). You know there's a tasty module inside. There are four steps you must now take:

DECOMPRESS the file

UNPACK the file into a directory

BUILD the module (sometimes unnecessary)

INSTALL the module.
Here's how to perform each step for each operating system. This is <not> a substitute for reading the README and INSTALL files that might have come with your module!

Also note that these instructions are tailored for installing the module into your system's repository of Perl modules -- but you can install modules into any directory you wish. For instance, where I say perl Makefile.PL , you can substitute perl Makefile.PL PREFIX=/my/perl_directory to install the modules into /my/perl_directory . Then you can use the modules from your Perl programs with use lib "/my/perl_directory/lib/site_perl"; or sometimes just use "/my/perl_directory"; . If you're on a system that requires superuser/root access to install modules into the directories you see when you type perl -e "print qq(@INC)" , you'll want to install them into a local directory (such as your home directory) and use this approach.

  • If you're on a Unix or Linux system,

    You can use Andreas Koenig's CPAN module ( http://www.cpan.org/modules/by-module/CPAN ) to automate the following steps, from DECOMPRESS through INSTALL.

    A. DECOMPRESS

    Decompress the file with gzip -d yourmodule.tar.gz

    You can get gzip from ftp://prep.ai.mit.edu/pub/gnu/

    Or, you can combine this step with the next to save disk space:

         gzip -dc yourmodule.tar.gz | tar -xof -
    

    B. UNPACK

    Unpack the result with tar -xof yourmodule.tar

    C. BUILD

    Go into the newly-created directory and type:

          perl Makefile.PL
          make
          make test
    

    or

          perl Makefile.PL PREFIX=/my/perl_directory
    

    to install it locally. (Remember that if you do this, you'll have to put use lib "/my/perl_directory"; near the top of the program that is to use this module.

    D. INSTALL

    While still in that directory, type:

          make install
    

    Make sure you have the appropriate permissions to install the module in your Perl 5 library directory. Often, you'll need to be root.

    That's all you need to do on Unix systems with dynamic linking. Most Unix systems have dynamic linking -- if yours doesn't, or if for another reason you have a statically-linked perl, and the module requires compilation, you'll need to build a new Perl binary that includes the module. Again, you'll probably need to be root.

  • If you're running ActivePerl (Win95/98/2K/NT/XP, Linux, Solaris)

    First, type ppm from a shell and see whether ActiveState's PPM repository has your module. If so, you can install it with ppm and you won't have to bother with any of the other steps here. You might be able to use the CPAN instructions from the "Unix or Linux" section above as well; give it a try. Otherwise, you'll have to follow the steps below.

       A. DECOMPRESS
    

    You can use the shareware Winzip ( http://www.winzip.com ) to decompress and unpack modules.

       B. UNPACK
    

    If you used WinZip, this was already done for you.

       C. BUILD
    

    Does the module require compilation (i.e. does it have files that end in .xs, .c, .h, .y, .cc, .cxx, or .C)? If it doesn't, go to INSTALL. If it does, life is now officially tough for you, because you have to compile the module yourself -- no easy feat on Windows. You'll need the nmake utility, available at ftp://ftp.microsoft.com/Softlib/MSLFILES/nmake15.exe

       D. INSTALL
    

    Copy the module into your Perl's lib directory. That'll be one of the directories you see when you type

       perl -e 'print "@INC"'
    

  • If you're using a Macintosh,

    A. DECOMPRESS

    First, make sure you have the latest cpan-mac distribution ( http://www.cpan.org/authors/id/CNANDOR/ ), which has utilities for doing all of the steps. Read the cpan-mac directions carefully and install it. If you choose not to use cpan-mac for some reason, there are alternatives listed here.

    After installing cpan-mac, drop the module archive on the untarzipme droplet, which will decompress and unpack for you.

    Or , you can either use the shareware StuffIt Expander program ( http://www.aladdinsys.com/expander/ ) in combination with DropStuff with Expander Enhancer ( http://www.aladdinsys.com/dropstuff/ ) or the freeware MacGzip program ( http://persephone.cps.unizar.es/general/gente/spd/gzip/gzip.html ).

    B. UNPACK

    If you're using untarzipme or StuffIt, the archive should be extracted now. Or , you can use the freeware suntar or Tar ( http://hyperarchive.lcs.mit.edu/HyperArchive/Archive/cmp/ ).

    C. BUILD

    Check the contents of the distribution. Read the module's documentation, looking for reasons why you might have trouble using it with MacPerl. Look for .xs and .c files, which normally denote that the distribution must be compiled, and you cannot install it "out of the box." (See PORTABILITY.)

    If a module does not work on MacPerl but should, or needs to be compiled, see if the module exists already as a port on the MacPerl Module Porters site ( http://pudge.net/mmp/ ). For more information on doing XS with MacPerl yourself, see Arved Sandstrom's XS tutorial ( http://macperl.com/depts/Tutorials/ ), and then consider uploading your binary to the CPAN and registering it on the MMP site.

    D. INSTALL

    If you are using cpan-mac, just drop the folder on the installme droplet, and use the module.

    Or , if you aren't using cpan-mac, do some manual labor.

    Make sure the newlines for the modules are in Mac format, not Unix format. If they are not then you might have decompressed them incorrectly. Check your decompression and unpacking utilities settings to make sure they are translating text files properly.

    As a last resort, you can use the perl one-liner:

        perl -i.bak -pe 's/(?:\015)?\012/\015/g' <filenames>
    

    on the source files.

    Then move the files (probably just the .pm files, though there may be some additional ones, too; check the module documentation) to their final destination: This will most likely be in $ENV{MACPERL}site_lib: (i.e., HD:MacPerl folder:site_lib: ). You can add new paths to the default @INC in the Preferences menu item in the MacPerl application ( $ENV{MACPERL}site_lib: is added automagically). Create whatever directory structures are required (i.e., for Some::Module , create $ENV{MACPERL}site_lib:Some: and put Module.pm in that directory).

    Then run the following script (or something like it):

         #!perl -w
         use AutoSplit;
         my $dir = "${MACPERL}site_perl";
         autosplit("$dir:Some:Module.pm", "$dir:auto", 0, 1, 1);
    

  • If you're on the DJGPP port of DOS,

       A. DECOMPRESS
    

    djtarx ( ftp://ftp.simtel.net/pub/simtelnet/gnu/djgpp/v2/ ) will both uncompress and unpack.

       B. UNPACK
    

    See above.

       C. BUILD
    

    Go into the newly-created directory and type:

          perl Makefile.PL
          make
          make test
    

    You will need the packages mentioned in README.dos in the Perl distribution.

       D. INSTALL
    

    While still in that directory, type:

         make install       
    

    You will need the packages mentioned in README.dos in the Perl distribution.

  • If you're on OS/2,

    Get the EMX development suite and gzip/tar, from either Hobbes ( http://hobbes.nmsu.edu ) or Leo ( http://www.leo.org ), and then follow the instructions for Unix.

  • If you're on VMS,

    When downloading from CPAN, save your file with a .tgz extension instead of .tar.gz . All other periods in the filename should be replaced with underscores. For example, Your-Module-1.33.tar.gz should be downloaded as Your-Module-1_33.tgz .

    A. DECOMPRESS

    Type

        gzip -d Your-Module.tgz
    

    or, for zipped modules, type

        unzip Your-Module.zip
    

    Executables for gzip, zip, and VMStar:

        http://www.openvms.digital.com/freeware/
        http://www.crinoid.com/utils/
    

    and their source code:

        http://www.fsf.org/order/ftp.html
    

    Note that GNU's gzip/gunzip is not the same as Info-ZIP's zip/unzip package. The former is a simple compression tool; the latter permits creation of multi-file archives.

    B. UNPACK

    If you're using VMStar:

         VMStar xf Your-Module.tar
    

    Or, if you're fond of VMS command syntax:

         tar/extract/verbose Your_Module.tar
    

    C. BUILD

    Make sure you have MMS (from Digital) or the freeware MMK ( available from MadGoat at http://www.madgoat.com ). Then type this to create the DESCRIP.MMS for the module:

        perl Makefile.PL
    

    Now you're ready to build:

        mms
        mms test
    

    Substitute mmk for mms above if you're using MMK.

    D. INSTALL

    Type

        mms install
    

    Substitute mmk for mms above if you're using MMK.

  • If you're on MVS ,

    Introduce the .tar.gz file into an HFS as binary; don't translate from ASCII to EBCDIC.

    A. DECOMPRESS

    Decompress the file with gzip -d yourmodule.tar.gz

    You can get gzip from http://www.s390.ibm.com/products/oe/bpxqp1.html

    B. UNPACK

    Unpack the result with

         pax -o to=IBM-1047,from=ISO8859-1 -r < yourmodule.tar
    

    The BUILD and INSTALL steps are identical to those for Unix. Some modules generate Makefiles that work better with GNU make, which is available from http://www.mks.com/s390/gnu/

PORTABILITY

Note that not all modules will work with on all platforms. See perlport for more information on portability issues. Read the documentation to see if the module will work on your system. There are basically three categories of modules that will not work "out of the box" with all platforms (with some possibility of overlap):

  • Those that should, but don't. These need to be fixed; consider contacting the author and possibly writing a patch.

  • Those that need to be compiled, where the target platform doesn't have compilers readily available. (These modules contain .xs or .c files, usually.) You might be able to find existing binaries on the CPAN or elsewhere, or you might want to try getting compilers and building it yourself, and then release the binary for other poor souls to use.

  • Those that are targeted at a specific platform. (Such as the Win32:: modules.) If the module is targeted specifically at a platform other than yours, you're out of luck, most likely.

Check the CPAN Testers if a module should work with your platform but it doesn't behave as you'd expect, or you aren't sure whether or not a module will work under your platform. If the module you want isn't listed there, you can test it yourself and let CPAN Testers know, you can join CPAN Testers, or you can request it be tested.

    http://testers.cpan.org/

HEY

If you have any suggested changes for this page, let me know. Please don't send me mail asking for help on how to install your modules. There are too many modules, and too few Orwants, for me to be able to answer or even acknowledge all your questions. Contact the module author instead, or post to comp.lang.perl.modules, or ask someone familiar with Perl on your operating system.

AUTHOR

Jon Orwant

orwant@tpj.example.com.com

The Perl Journal, http://tpj.com

with invaluable help from Chris Nandor, and valuable help from Brandon Allbery, Charles Bailey, Graham Barr, Dominic Dunlop, Jarkko Hietaniemi, Ben Holzman, Tom Horsley, Nick Ing-Simmons, Tuomas J. Lukka, Laszlo Molnar, Alan Olsen, Peter Prymmer, Gurusamy Sarathy, Christoph Spalinger, Dan Sugalski, Larry Virden, and Ilya Zakharevich.

First version July 22, 1998; last revised November 21, 2001.

COPYRIGHT

Copyright (C) 1998, 2002 Jon Orwant. All Rights Reserved.

Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this documentation provided the copyright notice and this permission notice are preserved on all copies.

Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this documentation under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided also that they are marked clearly as modified versions, that the authors' names and title are unchanged (though subtitles and additional authors' names may be added), and that the entire resulting derived work is distributed under the terms of a permission notice identical to this one.

Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this documentation into another language, under the above conditions for modified versions.


Kommentare:

-- HaraldBongartz - 29 Jun 2003
Topic revision: 2005-04-28, HaraldBongartz
 
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